TOOLS & UTILITIES

Metric Conversions
1 inch
= 2.54 centimeters
= 25.4 millimeters
1 foot
= 0.305 meter
= 30.48 centimeters
1 yard
= 0.9144 meter
1 mile
= 1.61 kilometers
= 5,280 feet
1 kilometer
= 1,000 meters
= 0.6214 mile
1 meter
= 100 centimeters
= 1,000 millimeters
1 meter
= 3.28 feet
1 centimeter
= 0.3937 inch
= 10 millimeters
1 millimeter
= 0.039 inch
= 0.1 centimeter
1 micron
= 10-4centimeter
= 10 meter
10-6meter
= 1 micrometer
1 kilolitre
= 1,000 litres
= 1 cubic meter
1 litr
= 1,000 millilitres
= 1,000 cc
1 millilitre
= 1 cc (exactly 1.000027cc)
1 fluid ounce
= 29.57 millilitres
1 US gallon
= 3.785 litres
1 imperial gallon
= 4.546 litres
1 kilogram
= 1000 grams
= 2.2 pounds
1 gram
= 1,000 milligrams
= 0.035 ounce
1 milligram
= 1,000 micrograms
= 1/1,000 gram
1 microgram
= 10-6 grams
= 1/1,000 milligram
1 nanogram
= 10-9 grams
= 1/1,000 microgram
1 pound
= 0.45 kilogram
= l6 ounces
1 ounce
= 28.35 grams
Container Dimensions
  • Standard
  • Container
  • Rack
  • Collapsible
  • Platform
  • Refrigerated
  • Bulk
  • Tank
  • Incoterms

Based on customer needs, ocean freight containers come in different dimensions and specifications. Most popular among sea freight container are 20’ standard container, 40’ standard container and 40’ HC. However we can provide for our customers the whole range of sea freight containers 45’ HC, Reefer, Open Top, Flat Rack, Platform, Tank Containers etc.

Please note that we comply with state and federal weight limitation when moving the ocean freight container.

Recommended maximum road weight limitation for freight containers is 38,500 lbs per 20' and 42,000 lbs per 40' in US and Canada.

Please refer to the appropriate ocean freight containers dimensions and functionalities on the container dimensions chart in the next page.

20' Standard Container

Cubic Capacity: 33 m3 (1 172 ft3)

Inside Dimensions:

Lenght: 5.895 m (19' 4 1/8")

Width: 2.350 m (7' 8 1/2")

Height: 2.392 m (7' 10 1/8")

Door Opening:

Width: 2.340 m (7' 8 1/8")

Height: 2.292 m (7' 6 1/4")

40' Standard Container

Cubic Capacity: 67 m3 (2 390 ft3)

Inside Dimensions:

Lenght: 12.029 m (39' 5 1/2")

Width: 2.350 m (7' 8 1/2")

Height: 2.392 m (7' 10 1/8")

Door Opening:

Width: 2.340 m (7' 8 1/8")

Height: 2.292 m (7' 6 1/4")

40' High Cube Container

Cubic Capacity: 76 m3 (2 694 ft3)

Inside Dimensions:

Lenght: 12.024 m ((39' 5 3/8")

Width: 2.350 m (7' 8 1/2")

Height: 2.697 m (8' 10 1/8")

Door Opening:

Width: 2.340 m (7' 8")

Height: 2.597 m (8' 5 3/4")

20' Open Top Container

Cubic Capacity: 33 m3 (1 149 ft3)

Inside Dimensions:

Lenght: 5.888 m (19' 4 1/8")

Width: 2.345 m (7' 8 1/2")

Height: 2.315 m (7' 9 1/2")

Door Opening:

Width: 2.286 m (7' 8")

Height: 2.184 m (7' 5 3/4")

40' Open Top Container

Cubic Capacity: 66 m3 (2 345 ft3)

Inside Dimensions:

Lenght: 12.029 m (39' 5 5/8")

Width: 2.342 m (7' 8 1/2")

Height: 2.326 m (7' 9 1/2")

Door Opening:

Width: 2.341 m (7' 8")

Height: 2.274 m (7' 6 1/4")

20' Flat Rack

Cubic Capacity: N/A

Inside Dimensions:

Lenght: 5.698 m (19' 9 3/4")

Width: 2.230 m (8' 0")

Height: 2.255 m (7' 3 1/8")

Door Opening:

Width: N/A

Height: N/A

40' Flat Rack

Cubic Capacity: N/A

Inside Dimensions:

Lenght: 11.832 m (39' 7 7/8")

Width: 2.228 m (7' 3 1/2")

Height: 1.981 m (6' 6")

Door Opening:

Width: N/A

Height: N/A

20' Flat Rack Collapsible

Cubic Capacity: N/A

Inside Dimensions:

Lenght: 5.675 m (18'6")

Width: 2.213 m (7'3")

Height: 2.270 m (7'4")

Door Opening:

Width: N/A

Height: N/A

40' Flat Rack Collapsible

Cubic Capacity: N/A

Inside Dimensions:

Lenght: 12.06 m (39'7")

Width: 2.08 m (6'10")

Height: 1.95 m (6'5")

Door Opening:

Width: N/A

Height: N/A

20' Platform

Cubic Capacity: N/A

Inside Dimensions:

Lenght: 6.058 m (19'11")

Width: 2.438 m (8'0")

Height: 0.370 m (1'3")

Door Opening:

Width: N/A

Height: N/A

40' Platform

Cubic Capacity: N/A

Inside Dimensions:

Lenght: 12.192 m (39' 12")

Width: 2.245 m (7' 4")

Height: 0.648 m (2' 1 1/2")

Door Opening:

Width: N/A

Height: N/A

20' Refrigerated Container

Cubic Capacity: 30 m3 (1 056 ft3)

Inside Dimensions:

Lenght: 5.724 m (18' 1 7/8")

Width: 2.286 m (7' 7 3/10")

Height: 2.014 m (7' 7 3/4" )

Door Opening:

Width: 2.286 m (7' 7 3/16")

Height: 2.067 m (7' 6 3/16")

40' Refrigerated Container

Cubic Capacity: 60 m3 (2 120 ft3)

Inside Dimensions:

Lenght: 11.840 m (37' 11 1/4")

Width: 2.286 m (7' 6 1/4")

Height: 2.120 m (7' 5")

Door Opening:

Width: 2.286 m (7' 6")

Height: 2.195 m (7' 2 1/8")

20' Bulk Container

Cubic Capacity: 32 m3 (1 130 ft3)

Inside Dimensions:

Lenght: 5.934 m (19' 5 1/2")

Width: 2.358 m (7' 8 4/5")

Height: 2.340 m (7' 8 1/8")

Door Opening:

Width: 2.335 m (7' 8")

Height: 2.292 m (7' 6 1/4")

20' Tank

Cubic Capacity: N/A

Inside Dimensions:

Lenght: 6.058 m (19' 10 1/2")

Width: 2.438 m (7' 12")

Height: 2.438 m (7' 12")

Door Opening:

Width: N/A

Height: N/A

Language is one of the most complex and important tools of International Trade. As in any complex and sophisticated business, small changes in wording can have a major impact on all aspects of a business agreement.

Word definitions often differ from industry to industry. This is especially true of global trade. Where such fundamental phrases as "delivery" can have a far different meaning in the business than in the rest of the world.

For business terminology to be effective, phrases must mean the same thing throughout the industry. That is why the International Chamber of Commerce created "INCOTERMS" in 1936. INCOTERMS are designed to create a bridge between different members of the industry by acting as a uniform language they can use.

Each INCOTERM refers to a type of agreement for the purchase and shipping of goods internationally. There are 11 different terms, each of which helps users deal with different situations involving the movement of goods. For example, the term FCA is often used with shipments involving Ro/Ro or container transport.

INCOTERMS also deal with the documentation required for global trade, specifying which parties are responsible for which documents. Determining the paperwork required to move a shipment is an important job, since requirements vary so much between countries. Two items, however, are standard: the commercial invoice and the packing list.

INCOTERMS were created primarily for people inside the world of global trade. Outsiders frequently find them difficult to understand. Seemingly common words such as "responsibility" and "delivery" have different meanings in global trade than they do in other situations.

In global trade, "delivery" refers to the seller fulfilling the obligation of the terms of sale or to completing a contractual obligation. "Delivery" can occur while the merchandise is on a vessel on the high seas and the parties involved are thousands of miles from the goods. In the end, however, the terms wind up boiling down to a few basic specifics:

Costs: who is responsible for the expenses involved in a shipment at a given point in the shipment's journey?

Control: who owns the goods at a given point in the journey?

Liability: who is responsible for paying damage to goods at a given point in a shipment's transit?

It is essential for shippers to know the exact status of their shipments in terms of ownership and responsibility. It is also vital for sellers & buyers to arrange insurance on their goods while the goods are in their "legal" possession. Lack of insurance can result in wasted time, lawsuits, and broken relationships.

INCOTERMS can thus have a direct financial impact on a company's business. What is important is not the acronyms, but the business results. Often companies like to be in control of their freight. That being the case, sellers of goods might choose to sell CIF, which gives them a good grasp of shipments moving out of their country, and buyers may prefer to purchase FOB, which gives them a tighter hold on goods moving into their country.

In this glossary, we'll tell you what terms such as CIF and FOB mean and their impact on the trade process. In addition, since we realize that most international buyers and sellers do not handle goods themselves, but work through customs brokers and freight forwarders, we'll discuss how both fit into the terms under discussion.

INCOTERMS are most frequently listed by category. Terms beginning with F refer to shipments where the primary cost of shipping is not paid for by the seller. Terms beginning with C deal with shipments where the seller pays for shipping. E-terms occur when a seller's responsibilities are fulfilled when goods are ready to depart from their facilities. D terms cover shipments where the shipper/seller's responsibility ends when the goods arrive at some specific point. Because shipments are moving into a country, D terms usually involve the services of a customs broker and a freight forwarder. In addition, D terms also deal with the pier or docking charges found at virtually all ports and determining who is responsible for each charge.

Recently the ICC changed basic aspects of the definitions of a number of INCOTERMS, buyers and sellers should be aware of this. Terms that have changed have a star alongside them.

EXW (EX-Works)

One of the simplest and most basic shipment arrangements places the minimum responsibility on the seller with greater responsibility on the buyer. In an EX-Works transaction, goods are basically made available for pickup at the shipper/seller's factory or warehouse and "delivery" is accomplished when the merchandise is released to the consignee's freight forwarder. The buyer is responsible for making arrangements with their forwarder for insurance, export clearance and handling all other paperwork.

FOB (Free On Board)

One of the most commonly used-and misused-terms, FOB means that the shipper/seller uses his freight forwarder to move the merchandise to the port or designated point of origin. Though frequently used to describe inland movement of cargo, FOB specifically refers to ocean or inland waterway transportation of goods. "Delivery" is accomplished when the shipper/seller releases the goods to the buyer's forwarder. The buyer's responsibility for insurance and transportation begins at the same moment.

FCA (Free Carrier)

In this type of transaction, the seller is responsible for arranging transportation, but he is acting at the risk and the expense of the buyer. Where in FOB the freight forwarder or carrier is the choice of the buyer, in FCA the seller chooses and works with the freight forwarder or the carrier. "Delivery" is accomplished at a predetermined port or destination point and the buyer is responsible for Insurance.

FAS (Free Alongside Ship)

In these transactions, the buyer bears all the transportation costs and the risk of loss of goods. FAS requires the shipper/seller to clear goods for export, which is a reversal from past practices. Companies selling on these terms will ordinarily use their freight forwarder to clear the goods for export. "Delivery" is accomplished when the goods are turned over to the Buyers Forwarder for insurance and transportation.

CFR (Cost and Freight)

This term formerly known as CNF (C&F) defines two distinct and separate responsibilities-one is dealing with the actual cost of merchandise "C" and the other "F" refers to the freight charges to a predetermined destination point. It is the shipper/seller's responsibility to get goods from their door to the port of destination. "Delivery" is accomplished at this time. It is the buyer's responsibility to cover insurance from the port of origin or port of shipment to buyer's door. Given that the shipper is responsible for transportation, the shipper also chooses the forwarder.

CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight)

This arrangement similar to CFR, but instead of the buyer insuring the goods for the maritime phase of the voyage, the shipper/seller will insure the merchandise. In this arrangement, the seller usually chooses the forwarder. "Delivery" as above, is accomplished at the port of destination.

CPT (Carriage Paid To)

In CPT transactions the shipper/seller has the same obligations found with CIF, with the addition that the seller has to buy cargo insurance, naming the buyer as the insured while the goods are in transit.

CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid To)

This term is primarily used for multimodal transport. Because it relies on the carrier's insurance, the shipper/seller is only required to purchase minimum coverage. When this particular agreement is in force, Freight Forwarders often act in effect, as carriers. The buyer's insurance is effective when the goods are turned over to the Forwarder.

DAT (Delivered At Terminal)

This term is used for any type of shipments. The shipper/seller pays for carriage to the terminal, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks up to the point that the goods are unloaded at the terminal.

DAP (Delivered At Place)

DAP term is used for any type of shipments. The shipper/seller pays for carriage to the named place, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks prior to the point that the goods are ready for unloading by the buyer.

DDP (Delivered Duty Paid)

DDP term tend to be used in intermodal or courier-type shipments. Whereby, the shipper/seller is responsible for dealing with all the tasks involved in moving goods from the manufacturing plant to the buyer/consignee's door. It is the shipper/seller's responsibility to insure the goods and absorb all costs and risks including the payment of duty and fees.

ULDS

A unit load device, or ULD, is a pallet or container used to load luggage, freight, and mail on wide-body aircraft and specific narrow-body aircraft. It allows large volumes of cargo to be bundled into a single unit. Since this leads to fewer units to load, it saves ground crews’ time as well as effort and prevents delayed flights. Each ULD has its own packing list (or manifest) so that its contents can be tracked.

Container

Container - AMA

ATA code:

M1

Internal Volume:

621 cu. ft. 17.58mc

Tare Weight:

477 kg

Weight Limitation Inc. ULD Tare Weight:

6,804 kg

Loadable Aircraft Type:

747F

Container - AMF

ATA code:

N/A

Internal Volume:

516 cu. ft. 14.6 mc

Tare Weight:

315 kg

Weight Limitation Inc. ULD Tare Weight:

5,035 kg

Loadable Aircraft Type:

747, 747F, 777, Airbus

Container - ALF

ATA code:

LD6

Internal Volume:

310 cu. ft., 8.78 mc

Tare Weight:

157 kg

Weight Limitation Inc. ULD Tare Weight:

3,175 kg

Loadable Aircraft Type:

747, 747F, 777, Airbus

Container - AAU

ATA code:

LD29

Internal Volume:

505 cu. ft., 14.3 mc

Tare Weight:

355 kg

Weight Limitation Inc. ULD Tare Weight:

4,626 kg

Loadable Aircraft Type:

747, 747F

Container - AKE

ATA code:

LD3

Internal Volume:

152 cu. ft, 4.3mc

Tare Weight:

73 kg / 100 kg

Weight Limitation Inc. ULD Tare Weight:

1,588 kg

Loadable Aircraft Type:

747, 747F, 777, Airbus

Cooltainer

Cooltainer - RKN

ATA code:

LD3

Internal Volume:

125.41 cu. ft., 3.55 mc

Tare Weight:

190 kg

Weight Limitation Inc. ULD Tare Weight:

1,588 kg

Loadable Aircraft Type:

747, 747F, 777, Airbus

Pallet

Pallet - PGA

Size:

Base: 96" x 238.5"

Height: 96" (Q6 Contour), 118" (Q7 Contour)

Tare Weight:

565 kg

Weight Limitation Inc. ULD Tare Weight:

11,340 kg

Loadable Aircraft Type:

747F

Pallet - PMC, PQP, P6P

Size:

Base: 96" x 125"

Height: 64" (passenger flight), 96" (Q6 Contour), 118" (Q7 Contour)

Tare Weight:

120 kg

Weight Limitation Inc. ULD Tare Weight:

5,035 kg (LD), 6,804 kg (MD)

Loadable Aircraft Type:

747, 747F, 777, Airbus

Pallet - PEB

Size:

Base: 53" x 88"

Height: 84"

Tare Weight:

55 kg

Weight Limitation Inc.

ULD Tare Weight:

1,800 kg (B-HIH - 1,300 kg)

Loadable Aircraft Type:

747F

Pallet - P1P, PAG

Size:

Base: 88" x 125"

Height: 64" (Passenger flight), 96" (Q6 Contour), 118" (Q7 Contour)

Tare Weight:

114 kg

Weight Limitation Inc. ULD Tare Weight:

4,626 kg (LD), 6,033 kg (MD)

Loadable Aircraft Type:

747, 747F, 777, Airbus

Pallet - PLA

Size:

Base: 60.4" x 125"

Height: 64"

Tare Weight:

103 kg

Weight Limitation Inc. ULD Tare Weight:

3,175 kg

Loadable Aircraft Type:

747, 747F, 777, Airbus

Cooltainer

Incoterms are a series of international sales with terms, published by International Chamber of Commerce and widely used in international commercial transactions. These are accepted by governments, legal authorities and practitioners worldwide for the interpretation of most commonly used terms in international trade. This reduces or removes altogether uncertainties arising from different interpretation of such terms in different countries. For a given term, "Yes" indicates that the seller has the responsibility to provide the service included in the price. "No" indicates it is the buyer's responsibility.

To understand the transaction costs and responsibilities between buyer and seller, refer to the